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24-09-2013, 22:21 - Окружные шашки


Игра в нашей жизни – это и есть сама жизнь. При определенных допущениях все игра,  а описывать что-либо возможно только с некоторыми допущениями. Язык игры по своей сути интернационален и универсален. Потому изучение культуры игр другого народа – прекрасная возможность понять не только его представителей, но и себя. Понять, что все твои игры тоже игры, а играть нужно уметь красиво.

Яо создал окружные шашки для того, чтобы научить своего сына Дан Чжу. Еще говорится, так как сын Шуня Шан Цзюнь был глупым, отец создал окружные шашки, чтобы обучать его», – писал Чжан Хуа (Западная Цзинь, 265–316) в тексте «Исчерпывающее описание вещей». Таким образом, можно сказать, что окружные шашки появились в пе­риод 2600–1600 годы до нашей эры и главной целью их создания было развитие мышления и воспитание  различных добродетельных качеств правителя. 

Окружные шашки

 



Окружные шашки (вэйци – кит., го – яп.) – 
инструмент развития стратегической интуиции. 
Игра, которая обучает принимать правильные решения не только на доске для игры, но и на реальном поле жизни.


Как сказал кто-то из мудрых, чтобы понять правила игры в вэйци, нужно пять минут, а чтобы научиться играть, понадобится пять лет. Конечно, для начала неплохо потратить хотя бы пять минут на ознакомление с правилами. Если же правила вы уже знаете, самое лучшее – как можно больше играть с разными (!) людьми. 


Окружные шашки

 


Правила игры
Партия в вэйци начинается с пустой доски, размеченной 19 линиями, вертикальными и горизонтальными. Играют двое, у каждого по 180 шашек черного или белого цвета. Игроки по очереди ставят на свободные точки – места пересечения линий – по одной шашке. Когда шашки оказываются в определенной точке, их больше не передвигают, но они могут быть окружены и «съедены». В этом случае их убирают с игрового поля. 
Однако главная задачи игры в вэйци – не съесть как можно больше шашек противника, а захватить и оставить за собой по возможности большую часть территории противника. 
У каждой шашки, расположенной на поле, есть четыре «дыхания» (соединения по горизонтали или вертикали), у шашки, расположенной на краю доски, – три «дыхания», а у шашки на углу доски – два. Если шашка противника заняла соседнюю с этой шашкой точку-соединение, то считается, что этого «дыхания» у шашки уже нет. Шашка (или группа шашек) считается съеденной, если у нее не осталось ни одного «дыхания». 
Стратегическая цель окружных шашек предписывает захватить как можно больше пространства путем более эффективного окружения или атак на шашки противника. При этом широкое поле игры позволяет уступить в тактическом противоборстве на одном участке, но все же выиграть партию, действуя по всей доске в целом. 
В «Каноне о шашках» сказано: «Когда еще не вступил в битву, но делаешь расчет на обретение победы, тогда победа обретается часто. Если не считаешь и не рассчитываешь победить, тогда насчитывается мало побед. Когда уже вступили в битву и не знаешь, будет победа или поражение, это значит, что нет расчета». Таким образом, каждый ход должен быть продуман, иначе, сделав глупый ход, можешь потерять шашки или же позволить противнику занять больше пространства на доске. 
Бай Сяочуань в своей книге «Мастерство мышления в окружных шашках» дает следующий комментарий этому фрагменту: «Высокий мастер продумывает изначально и стратегически строит победу. Высота его строится в прогнозе и предвидении». 
Эти строки – замечательный пример тому, что игра в шашки является своеобразной аналогией жизненных ситуаций. Сделав необдуманный ход, рискуешь оказаться в затруднительном положении.



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