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5-08-2013, 08:51 - Под защитой Гуань-ди


Благородный полководец с роскошной бородой, облаченный в доспехи из чешуи в форме звезд, неустрашимо сжимающий  в одной руке огромный меч, 
а в другой держащий книгу. Таким чаще всего предстает перед нами Гуань-ди – покровитель воинов, отважный борец за справедливость, образец доблести и добродетели.

Под защитой Гуань-ди

 



Гуань-ди (Владыка Гуань, Император Гуань), полный титул – Наисовершенный Августейший Господин Гуань, Гуаньшэн-дицзюнь. Среди многочисленных богов китайского пантеона вряд ли найдется превосходящий его по популярности и столь же колоритный. 

Именно этот «китайский Марс» изобрел гуаньдао (нож Гуаня) – холодное оружие, состоящее из длинного древка с наконечником в виде большого ножа.
Гуань-ди считается покровителем различных ремесел, богом богатства и нередко прямо отождествляется с Цай-шэнем. При этом почитается представителями разных религий. Его изображения, как хранителя чистоты веры, есть в каждом буддийском монастыре. Он почитается как победитель демонов у даосов. У конфуцианцев — покровитель ученых и литераторов, так как согласно преданию его настольной книгой было сочинение Конфуция «Весны и Осени».

История появления его культа достаточно проста. Полководец по имени Гуань Юй (221–265) жил в конце периода правления династии Хань. Дав клятву верности Лю Бэю, своему побратиму и основателю юго-западного царства Шу – одного из государств эпохи Троецарствия, он командовал его войсками. Гуань Юй остался верен своему слову и, попав в плен, был казнен. Его отрубленную голову пытались использовать для усугубления вражды. Но в результате на месте его захоронения был возведен поминальный храм, который и по сей день существует в окрестностях города Лояна. 


Под защитой Гуань-ди

 



История его подвигов красочно описана в знаменитом романе Ло Гуйчжуна «Троецарствие». Этот роман отличается назидательностью, на первый план выведены конфуцианские добродетели героев. Именно эти качества, а не военные доблести ценили в Гуань Юе императоры и жаловали ему почетные титулы. Уже в 782 году он был причислен к рангу лиц, достойных официальных жертвоприношений. Во времена династии Юань ему присвоили титул правителя-первопредка, ди, и он превратился в покровителя правящего дома и защитника страны от злых сил. В середине XIX века Гуань-ди получил титул совершенномудрого, шэн, и стал почитаться наравне с Конфуцием.

По преданию, с детских лет Гуань Юй обладал неистовой силой и совершил свой первый подвиг, избавив родной уезд от начальника, чинившего произвол. Чтобы его не смогли опознать, он омыл лицо водой из волшебного источника, и оно стало красным, цвета финика жужуба. Поэтому практически на всех изображениях у Гуань-ди лицо красного цвета. Его гигантский рост, почти 3 метра, и длинная, около 60 см, черная, наподобие извилистого тела дракона, борода довершают облик.


Под защитой Гуань-ди

 



Самым могущественным считается образ Гуань-ди, стоящего с гуаньдао в руке, пятью флагами за спиной и изображением девяти драконов на доспехах. Фигура этого божества в доме или офисе принесет мир и спокойствие, защитит кормильца и дарует всем обитателям фантастическую удачу и процветание.

Елена Тимофеева



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