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16-10-2013, 12:13 - Из истории мебели


История

Из истории мебели

 



Первым предметом китайской мебели были циновки, их начали использовать в эпоху Шэньнун, около 5 тысяч лет назад. Циновка была главным предметом, вокруг которого строился быт, при этом она выполняла также и ритуальные функции, указывала на социальное положение ее хозяина. В главе «Весенний чиновник» (Чунгун туньгуань) есть записи о различных типах материалов, типах узоров и цветов, которые подразделяли циновки на пять видов: вань, пао, цы, ху  и сюнь. Каждый из них имел свою особенность и удовлетворял определенным требованиям. 
Эпоха развития бронзы в периоды правления династий Шан и Чжоу связана с изготовлением предметов из нового материала. Бронзовые ритуальные столики цзу и цзинь стали прототипами чайных столиков, столов, стульев и даже шкафов, появившихся в последующие периоды. 
В эпоху династии Хань наряду с циновками появляются лежанки, та, которые так же, как и циновки, использовались для сидения. Лежанки того периода были низкие и использовались в основном для приема гостей. 
Во времена эпохи Южной и Северной династий, в периоды Вэй и Пу под влиянием буддизма и культурного обмена с другими народами начала входить в обиход высокая мебель, появилась привычка сидеть выпрямив, вытянув ноги. Непрерывно появлялись новые виды высокой мебели: помимо складного стула появились стул, табуретка, лавка, двухместная складная кровать и т. д. Появление высокой мебели оказало большое влияние на традиционный уклад жизни. Тип взаимодействия между людьми, сформированный сидением на коленях на полу, если и не ушел совсем, то получил альтернативный вариант. 
Период правления династии Тан – это время экономического расцвета, многообразия культуры. Развитие архитектуры, возможности, предоставленные эпохой процветания и благоденствия в обществе, привели к расширению внутреннего пространства жилья, тем самым открылись возможности для воплощения идей в области развития мебели. 
С начала правления династии Сун до времен династии Мин искусство изготовления мебели достигло небывалого уровня. Основные формы мебели в ту эпоху характеризуются каркасными конструкциями. С богатством видов и моделей мебели, возникших тогда, не может сравниться ни один период. 
В эпоху династии Мин быстрое развитие городов и экономический рост привели к увеличению спроса на мебель. Все это происходило на фоне смены общественного уклада. Развитие торговли способствовало появлению новых высококачественных сортов древесины, что не могло не отразиться на мебели. Дорогое сырье предполагало изготовление мебели изысканных форм, и в то же время срок службы мебели увеличивался, то есть вещи делались на века. 
В основе изготовления мебели династии Цин лежали правила, сформировавшиеся еще в династию Мин, при этом шел непрерывный процесс усовершенствования технологий, мебель становилась изощреннее и утонченнее. Изысканность и красоту, содержательную простоту и сдержанность стиля предыдущего периода сменила напыщенная роскошь в сочетании с заурядностью. Использовались дорогие материалы, формы стали величественными и максимально усложненными, орнаменты – многочисленными и мелкими. Прослеживается стремление сделать ме­бель дороже и роскошнее, для этого использовали инкрустацию из дорогих материалов: нефрит, слоновая кость, эмаль, перламутр, цветные камни и т. д. 

Фэн-шуй

Из истории мебели

 



Размещение мебели в вашем доме непосредственно затрагивает пути энергии. Один из главных принципов заключается в том, что нужно оставить место для свободного движения энергии и не ставить много стульев, столов и другой мебели в одном пространстве. 
Другой важный момент – мебель должна возвышаться над полом, то есть иметь ножки, для движения энергии. Третий момент – мебель типа стульев, кушеток, кроватей и столов должна быть расположена так, чтобы с этих мест была видна дверь. По фэн-шуй требуется, чтобы между отдельными предметами было пространство, например стол с кушеткой должны стоять на расстоянии не менее метра. Картины должны размещаться на уровне глаз, лучше, чтобы они висели над предметами мебели. 
Мебель, как один из инструментов организации жилого пространства дома, при правильной расстановке влияет на поддержание ровных и добрых отношений в семье, на успешность карьеры, внутреннее равновесие и здоровье всех домочадцев. 



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